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Author Topic: FREE SAMPLES from Betancourt Nutrition  (Read 15447 times)
Naked4Jesus
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« Reply #75 on: May 31, 2006, 07:59:52 AM »

TimFogerty said that it would give you a 1-2% edge over someone not taking.
His theory means that those in the study that didn't take Creatine should have gained 1-2% less lean muscle mass.

Clearly, at least from this study using Creatine offers far more of a benefit than 1-2%, probably something more along the lines of 18-20%.

If you extrapolate those numbers out over the course of a year, taking three months off of Creatine use, 2.42 *9 = 21.78 lbs.  No way that's a 1-2% gain.

Again though, this only works if that study is accurate.

18-20% is a 36-40lb gain, think of what your saying...  if that were the case then they would exceed typical gains made on steriods and in fact would eventually replace steriods.  Ever seen someone take glutamine, creatine, whatever, blow up huge and turn pro?  I just doesn't happen. 
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CAPTAIN MARVEL
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« Reply #76 on: May 31, 2006, 08:01:21 AM »

18-20% is a 36-40lb gain, think of what your saying...  if that were the case then they would exceed typical gains made on steriods and in fact would eventually replace steriods.  Ever seen someone take glutamine, creatine, whatever, blow up huge and turn pro?  I just doesn't happen. 
Dude just because it doesn't equivocate steroids, doesn't mean creatine isn't effective.
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« Reply #77 on: May 31, 2006, 08:33:15 AM »

 I've used alot of supplements and creatine can be effective in short term use. After about four weeks your body just becomes accustomed to it I feel. I know use Beverly Mass BCAA's 1 for each 10lbs of bodyweight with each meal then Beverly Ultra 40 ( liver ) 1 for each 10lpbs of body weight. I also use Beverly Ultra size. This seems to be working definitely see muscle hardness but I need to do more cardio. Other supplements that I think are good are Gaspari Novadex XT definitley increases strength also Size On is the preferred creatine / nitric oxide combo. Other supplemets I use is the MHP Multi Vitamin. In reality I don't see anyone in my World Gym that even remotely looks like a pro including myself. Drugs are what make these guys huge ! Also not enough people doing enough sets and reps its better to feel full contraction than just throwing up the weight your muscles should be sore if not your are doing something wrong. Train hard
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ieffinhatecardio
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« Reply #78 on: May 31, 2006, 09:05:26 AM »

18-20% is a 36-40lb gain, think of what your saying...  if that were the case then they would exceed typical gains made on steriods and in fact would eventually replace steriods.  Ever seen someone take glutamine, creatine, whatever, blow up huge and turn pro?  I just doesn't happen. 

I can't quite figure out why this is baffling to you.

TimFogerty said there was an edge of 1-2%, ergo people that use nothing will gain 1-2% less muscle than those that use creatine.

Are you following so far?

Ok, so if a creatine user gains 6 pounds of muscle or 96 oz. in 3 months then a non creatine user should gain 1-2% less muscle or 5 lbs. 14 ounces or 94 ounces in the same 3 month period.

Are you following?

I'm saying by the study I quoted TimFogerty is incorrect and instead of a 1-2% gain you would actually gain 18-20%.

Are you following?

So by my calculations if a non creatine user gained 8 lbs of muscle in a 3 month span then a creatine user would gain 20% more or 9.6 lbs. or just for rounding off sake 10 lbs.

Did you follow my calculations?

Again, my calculations work only if the study is correct.

In fact my numbers are conservative if the study is accurate, the benefit is probably more like 25-30%.
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Adam Empire
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« Reply #79 on: May 31, 2006, 09:15:04 AM »

Look everyone, Glutamine, Creatine, etc.  give small advantages alone - but you need to add up all the little stuff to edge out the next guy. 

Take Creatine, Glutamine, Protein, Multi, Minerals, EFAs, garlic, cinammon, ZMA, fat burners, whatever...  Rest and eat better too.  Train with intensity and work hard.  Be consistant with everything.

All these things add a little bit to body.  None of them alone will make a noticeable difference.  Period.  You need to do a lot to be better than the others.  Look at Jay - he does every little thing to get the edge (massages, awesome diet, vitamins, etc) - and it pays off...
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« Reply #80 on: May 31, 2006, 09:45:25 AM »

After the 28 days the players using creatine gained an extra 1.1 KG or 2.42 pounds of lean muscle. In addition they gained strength in the bench press, squat and power clean.

assuming that it is 2.42 pounds of lean muscle and not water weight, which is what creatine is known to do (16 grams a day!!!), what happens the second month, and the third, and the fourth?   If creatine really did give you a 2.42 pound per month advantage, after a year you'd have 29 pounds more muscle than someone not taking creatine.  after 3 years that would be 87 pounds.  obviously that's not what's happening.

so if this study is accurate, creatine may have some value for first time users, but when measured in terms of years, my 1-2% claim may still be valid.
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Naked4Jesus
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« Reply #81 on: May 31, 2006, 09:52:56 AM »

assuming that it is 2.42 pounds of lean muscle and not water weight, which is what creatine is known to do (16 grams a day!!!), what happens the second month, and the third, and the fourth?   If creatine really did give you a 2.42 pound per month advantage, after a year you'd have 29 pounds more muscle than someone not taking creatine.  after 3 years that would be 87 pounds.  obviously that's not what's happening.

so if this study is accurate, creatine may have some value for first time users, but when measured in terms of years, my 1-2% claim may still be valid.

My thoughts exactly. 

Now if you were talking about Chromium Picolinate or Cell-Tech I'd have to agree with you since that almost puts as much muscle on you as Venom Vince Versace Goodrum's Bee Pollen.
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« Reply #82 on: May 31, 2006, 10:08:12 AM »

All these things add a little bit to body.  None of them alone will make a noticeable difference.  Period.  You need to do a lot to be better than the others.

some things will make more of a difference than others.  training techniques, diet, sleep, no alchohol or recreational drugs.  those are the things that will have significant effect on your gains.   so my 1-2% claim could be "compared to things that really do make a difference".

another way to say it is becoming a top bodybuilder (and I'm just picking these numbers out of the air) is 30% diet (which includes protein, multivitamin, EFAs), 30% rest, 30% training, and a few percent supplements.  if you don't have the first three right, why bother with the fourth?
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Naked4Jesus
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« Reply #83 on: May 31, 2006, 10:16:58 AM »

Save your money, buy some brown rice, steak, chicken and sweet potatoes and you'll thank me years from now.  Blow your cash on the supplement industry's bullshit and you'll just be broke and jaded.
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bigdumbbell
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« Reply #84 on: May 31, 2006, 07:26:16 PM »

Save your money, buy some brown rice, steak, chicken and sweet potatoes and you'll thank me years from now.  Blow your cash on the supplement industry's bullshit and you'll just be broke and jaded.

i just luv me some sweet potatoes
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The True Adonis
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« Reply #85 on: May 31, 2006, 07:51:57 PM »

Glutamine 

Supplement Forms / Alternate Names
  • L-Glutamine
Principal Proposed Uses
  • None
Other Proposed Uses
  • Angina; Attention Deficit Disorder; Crohn's Disease; Enhancing Mental Function; Food Allergies; HIV Support; Irritable Bowel Syndrome; Overtraining Syndrome; Post-exercise Colds; Ulcerative Colitis; Ulcers; Undesired Weight Loss

Page Navigation
   Sources
   Therapeutic Dosages
   Therapeutic Uses
   What Is the Scientific Evidence for Glutamine?
   Safety Issues
   Interactions You Should Know About
   References




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Glutamine, or L-glutamine, is an amino acid derived from another amino acid, glutamic acid. Glutamine plays a role in the health of the immune system, digestive tract, and muscle cells, as well as other bodily functions. It appears to serve as a fuel for the cells that line the intestines. Heavy exercise, infection, surgery, and trauma can deplete the body's glutamine reserves, particularly in muscle cells.

The fact that glutamine does so many good things in the body has led people to try glutamine supplements as a treatment for various conditions, including preventing the infections that often follow endurance exercise, reducing symptoms of overtraining syndrome, improving nutrition in critical illness, alleviating allergies, and treating digestive problems.


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Sources
There is no daily requirement for glutamine, because the body can make its own supply. As mentioned earlier, various severe stresses may result in a temporary glutamine deficiency.

High-protein foods such as meat, fish, beans, and dairy products are excellent sources of glutamine. Typical daily intake from food ranges from approximately 1 to 6 grams.


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Therapeutic Dosages
Typical therapeutic dosages of glutamine used in studies ranges from 3 to 30 g daily, divided into several separate doses.


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Therapeutic Uses
Endurance athletes frequently catch cold after completing a marathon or similar forms of exercise. Preliminary evidence, including one small double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, suggests that glutamine supplements might help prevent such infections.1–5

Another small double-blind, placebo-controlled trial suggests that glutamine might support standard therapy for angina.34 NOTE: Angina is too dangerous a disease for self-treatment. If you have angina, do not take glutamine (or any other supplement) except on the advice of a physician.

Because, as noted above, cells of the intestine use glutamine for fuel, the supplement has been tried as a supportive treatment for various digestive conditions, with mixed results. Tested uses include reducing diarrhea caused by the drug nelfinavir (used for treatment of HIV),37 digestive distress caused by cancer chemotherapy,15,16 and symptoms of inflammatory bowel disease.9-14

Glutamine appears to to help reduce leakage through the intestinal wall.7,8,38 On this basis, glutamine has also been suggested as a treatment for food allergies, according to the idea that in some people whole proteins leak through the wall of the digestive tract and enter the blood, causing allergic reactions (so-called "leaky gut syndrome") . However, as yet there is no reliable evidence that glutamine actually provides any benefits for food allergies.

Preliminary evidence suggests glutamine combined with antioxidants or other nutrients may help people with HIV to gain weight.17,18 Glutamine (often combined with other nutrients) also appears to be useful as a nutritional supplement for people undergoing recovery from major surgery or critical illness.6,39

Glutamine has been tried as an ergogenic aid for bodybuilders, but two small trials failed to find any evidence of benefit.35,36

Based on glutamine's role in muscle, it has been suggested that glutamine might be useful for athletes experiencing overtraining syndrome. As the name suggests, this syndrome is the cumulative effect of a training regimen that allows too little rest and recovery between workouts. Symptoms include depression, fatigue, reduced performance, and physiological signs of stress. Glutamine supplements have additionally been proposed as treatment for attention deficit disorder, ulcers, and as a "brain booster." However, there is little to no scientific evidence for any of these uses.


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What Is the Scientific Evidence for Glutamine?
Infections in Athletes
Endurance exercise temporarily reduces immunity to infection. This effect may be due in part to reduction of glutamine in the body, although not all studies agree.19–23,34

A double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluated the benefits of supplemental glutamine (5 g) taken at the end of exercise in 151 endurance athletes.24 The results showed a significant decrease in infections among treated athletes. Only 19% of the athletes taking glutamine got sick, as compared to 51% of those on placebo.

For other approaches to this problem, see the article titled Sports and Fitness Support: Aids to Recovery.

Recovery from Critical Illness
One small double-blind study found that glutamine supplements might have significant nutritional benefits for seriously ill people.25 In this study, 84 critically ill hospital patients were divided into two groups. All the patients were being fed through a feeding tube. One group received a normal feeding-tube diet, whereas the other group received this diet plus supplemental glutamine. After 6 months, 14 of the 42 patients receiving glutamine had died, compared with 24 of the control group. The glutamine group also left both the intensive care ward and the hospital significantly sooner than the patients who did not receive glutamine. Benefits have been seen in other controlled trials as well.40

HIV Support
One double-blind, placebo-controlled study of 25 people found that use of glutamine at 30 grams daily for 7 days reduced diarrhea caused by the protease inhibitor nelfinavir.41

In addition, combination supplements containing glutamine may help reverse HIV-related weight loss. For example, a double-blind, placebo-controlled study found that a combination of glutamine and antioxidants (vitamins C and E, beta-carotene, selenium, and N-acetylcysteine) led to significant weight gain in people with HIV who had lost weight.26 Another small double-blind trial found that combination treatment with glutamine, arginine, and beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) could increase muscle mass and possibly improve immune status.27

Cancer Chemotherapy
There is mixed evidence regarding whether glutamine can reduce the side effects of cancer chemotherapy. A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 70 people undergoing chemotherapy with the drug 5-FU for colorectal cancer found that glutamine at a dose of 18 g daily improved intestinal function and structure, and reduced the need for anti-diarrhea drugs.28 However, a double-blind trial of 65 women undergoing various forms of chemotherapy for advanced breast cancer failed to find glutamine at 30 g per day helpful for reducing diarrhea.29

Angina
Researchers conducted investigations in rats, and found that glutamine could protect the heart from damage caused by loss of oxygen.34 Based on these findings, they went on to evaluate the effects of glutamine in ten people with chronic angina who were also taking standard medication. In this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial, each participant received a single oral dose of glutamine (80 mg per kg of body weight) or placebo 40 minutes before a treadmill test. A week later, each participant received the opposite treatment. The results showed that use of glutamine significantly enhanced the ability of participants to exercise without showing signs of heart stress. Based on the results in rats, researchers suggest that a higher dose of glutamine would be worth trying.

Crohn's Disease
Because glutamine is the major fuel source for cells of the small intestine, glutamine has been proposed as a treatment for Crohn's disease, a disease of the small intestine.30 However, two double-blind trials enrolling a total of 30 people found no benefit.31,32

Sports Performance
A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 31 people ranging from 18 to 24 years of age evaluated the potential benefits of glutamine as a sports supplement for improving response to resistance training (weight lifting).35 Participants received either placebo or glutamine at a dose of 0.9 g per kg of lean tissue mass. After 6 weeks of resistance training, participants taking glutamine showed no relative improvement in performance, composition, or muscle protein degradation.
Similarly, negative results were seen in a small double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of weightlifters using a dose of 0.3 g per kg of total body weight.36


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Safety Issues
As a naturally occurring amino acid, glutamine is thought to be a safe supplement when taken at recommended dosages. However, those who are hypersensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) should use glutamine with caution, as the body metabolizes glutamine into glutamate. Also, because many anti-epilepsy drugs work by blocking glutamate stimulationin the brain, high dosages of glutamine might conceivably overwhelm these drugs and pose a risk to people with epilepsy.

Finally, in one case report high doses of the supplement L-glutamine (more than 2 g per day) may have triggered episodes of mania in two people not previously known to have bipolar disorder.33

Maximum safe dosages for young children, pregnant or nursing women, or those with severe liver or kidney disease have not been determined.


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Interactions You Should Know About
If you are taking antiseizure medications, including carbamazepine, phenobarbital, Dilantin (phenytoin), Mysoline (primidone), and valproic acid (Depakene), use glutamine only under medical supervision.

If you are taking nelfinavir or other protease inhibitors for HIV, or cancer chemotherapy drugs, use of glutamine may reduce intestinal side effects.


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References

1. Castell LM, Poortmans JR, Newsholme EA. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996;73:488–490.

2. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. Glutamine and the effects of exhaustive exercise upon the immune response. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1998;76:524–532.

3. Rohde T, MacLean DA, Hartkopp A, et al. The immune system and serum glutamine during a triathlon. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1996;74:428–434.

4. Rowbottom DG, Keast D, Morton AR, et al. The emerging role of glutamine as an indicator of exercise stress and overtraining. Sports Med. 1996;21:80–97.

5. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. The effects of oral glutamine supplementation on athletes after prolonged, exhaustive exercise. Nutrition. 1997;13:738–742.

6. Griffiths RD, Jones C, Palmer TE. Six-month outcome of critically ill patients given glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition. Nutrition. 1997;13:295–302.

7. van der Hulst RR, van Kreel BK, von Meyenfeldt MF, et al. Glutamine and the preservation of gut integrity. Lancet. 1993;341:1363–1365.

8. Zoli G, Care M, Falco F, et al. Effect of oral glutamine on intestinal permeability and nutritional status in Crohn's disease [abstract]. Gastroenterology. 1995;108:A766.

9. Alverdy JC. Effects of glutamine-supplemented diets on immunology of the gut. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr.1990;14(suppl 4):109S–113S.

10. Fox AD, Kripke SA, Berman JR, et al. Reduction of the severity of enterocolitis by glutamine-supplemented enteral diets. Surg Forum. 1987;38:43–44.

11. Fujita T, Sakurai K. Efficacy of glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in an experimental model of mucosal ulcerative colitis. Br J Surg. 1995;82:749–751.

12. van der Hulst RR, van Kreel BK, von Meyenfeldt MF, et al. Glutamine and the preservation of gut integrity. Lancet. 1993;341:1363–1365.

13. Akobeng AK, Miller V, Stanton J, et al. Double-blind randomized controlled trial of glutamine-enriched polymeric diet in the treatment of active Crohn's disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;30:78–84.

14. Den Hond E, Hiele M, Peeters M, et al. Effect of long-term oral glutamine supplements on small intestinal permeability in patients with Crohn's disease. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1999;23:7–11.

15. van der Hulst RR, van Kreel BK, von Meyenfeldt MF, et al. Glutamine and the preservation of gut integrity. Lancet.1993;341:1363–1365.

16. Daniele B, Perrone F, Gallo C, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of fluorouracil induced intestinal toxicity: a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial. Gut. 2001;48:28–33.

17. Shabert JK, Winslow C, Lacey JM, et al. Glutamine-antioxidant supplementation increases body cell mass in AIDS patients with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Nutrition. 1999;15:860–864.

18. Clark RH, Feleke G, Din M, et al. Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting using beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine, and arginine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2000;24:133–139.

19. Rohde T, MacLean DA, Hartkopp A, et al. The immune system and serum glutamine during a triathlon. Eur J Appl Physiol. 1996;74:428–434.

20. Rowbottom DG, Keast D, Morton AR. The emerging role of glutamine as an indicator of exercise stress and overtraining. Sports Med. 1996;21:80–97.

21. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. Glutamine and the effects of exhaustive exercise upon the immune response. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1998;76:524–532.

22. Castell LM, Newsholme EA. The effects of oral glutamine supplementation on athletes after prolonged, exhaustive exercise. Nutrition. 1997;13:738–742.

23. Mackinnon LT, Hooper SL. Plasma glutamine and upper respiratory tract infection during intensified training in swimmers. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1996;28:285–290.

24. Castell LM, Poortmans JR, Newsholme EA. Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. 1996;73:488–490.

25. Griffiths RD, Jones C, Palmer TE. Six-month outcome of critically ill patients given glutamine-supplemented parenteral nutrition. Nutrition. 1997;13:295–302.

26. Shabert JK, Winslow C, Lacey JM, et al. Glutamine-antioxidant supplementation increases body cell mass in AIDS patients with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind controlled trial. Nutrition. 1999;15:860–864.

27. Clark RH, Feleke G, Din M, et al. Nutritional treatment for acquired immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting using beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate, glutamine, and arginine: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 2000;24:133–139.

28. Daniele B, Perrone F, Gallo C, et al. Oral glutamine in the prevention of fluorouracil induced intestinal toxicity: a double blind, placebo controlled, randomised trial. Gut. 2001;48:28–33.

29. Bozzetti F, Biganzoli L, Gavazzi C, et al. Glutamine supplementation in cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: a double-blind randomized study. Nutrition. 1997;13:748–751.

30. van der Hulst, RR, van Kreel BK, von Meyenfeldt MF, et al. Glutamine and the preservation of gut integrity. Lancet. 1993;341:1363–1365.

31. Den Hond ED, Hiele M, Peeters M, et al. Effect of long-term oral glutamine supplements on small intestinal permeability in patients with Crohn's disease. JPEN J Parenter Enteral Nutr. 1999;23:7–11.

32. Akobeng AK, Miller V, Stanton J, et al. Double-blind randomized controlled trial of glutamine-enriched polymeric diet in the treatment of active Crohn's disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2000;30:78–84.

33. Mebane AH. L-Glutamine and mania [letter]. Am J Psychiatry. 1984;141:1302–1303.

34. Khogali SE, Pringle SD, Weryk BV, et al. Is glutamine beneficial in ischemic heart disease? Nutrition. 2002;18:123–126.

35. Candow DG, Chilibeck PD, Burke DG, et al. Effect of glutamine supplementation combined with resistance training in young adults. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2001;86:142–149.

36. Antonio J, Sanders MS, Kalman D, et al. The effects of high-dose glutamine ingestion on weightlifting performance. J Strength Cond Res. 2002;16:157–160.

37. Huffman FG, Walgren ME. L-Glutamine supplementation improves nelfinavir-associated diarrhea in HIV-infected individuals. HIV Clin Trials. 2003;4:324-9.

38. Quan ZF, Yang C, Li N, Li JS. Effect of glutamine on change in early postoperative intestinal permeability and its relation to systemic inflammatory response. World J Gastroenterol. 2004;10:1992-4.

39. Garcia-de-Lorenzo A, Zarazaga A, Garcia-Luna PP, et al. Clinical evidence for enteral nutritional support with glutamine: a systematic review. Nutrition. 2003;19:805-11.

40. Garcia-de-Lorenzo A, Zarazaga A, Garcia-Luna PP, et al. Clinical evidence for enteral nutritional support with glutamine: a systematic review. Nutrition. 2003;19:805-11.

41. Huffman FG, Walgren ME. L-Glutamine supplementation improves nelfinavir-associated diarrhea in HIV-infected individuals. HIV Clin Trials. 2003;4:324-9.



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The True Adonis
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« Reply #86 on: May 31, 2006, 07:53:06 PM »

Sports Performance
A double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of 31 people ranging from 18 to 24 years of age evaluated the potential benefits of glutamine as a sports supplement for improving response to resistance training (weight lifting).35 Participants received either placebo or glutamine at a dose of 0.9 g per kg of lean tissue mass. After 6 weeks of resistance training, participants taking glutamine showed no relative improvement in performance, composition, or muscle protein degradation.
Similarly, negative results were seen in a small double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of weightlifters using a dose of 0.3 g per kg of total body weight.36
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« Reply #87 on: May 31, 2006, 07:54:22 PM »

The Link:

http://healthlibrary.epnet.com/GetContent.aspx?token=e0498803-7f62-4563-8d47-5fe33da65dd4&chunkiid=21749
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The True Adonis
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« Reply #88 on: May 31, 2006, 07:58:34 PM »

A - Z of Glutamine

What is Glutamine?
Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid (protein building block) utilised by the digestive system in muscle tissue maintenance and by the immune system, and acts as an excitatory neurotransmitter.

 
 
Sixty percent of the intramuscular pool of free amino acids consists of glutamine. It also plays an important part in nitrogen balance throughout the body. Those who suffer from Huntington’s disease have an excess of glutamine in the body. It is the most abundant amino acid in the body.

How does it work?
Glutamine plays a key role in the synthesis of protein, and becomes an energy source after deamination, and increases nitrogen retention. It is then used in the metabolism of nucleic acid. The theory is that these processes help to speed up the recovery of muscle tissue after a long workout, or period of physical stress.

Why you might consider using glutamine
Glutamine might help in preventing the loss of muscle mass, and may effect muscle recovery times after physical activity. A diet consisting of a healthy amount of glutamine does effect the immune system positively during times of stress.

What it can do


With an increase in levels of glutamine, muscle catabolism is slowed down during periods of intense physical activity or stress
Glutamine can possibly aid in building a damaged or lowered immune system

What it cannot do


Glutamine has no effect on exercise performance or body composition during periods of physical exercise
Glutamine does not build muscle mass

Harmful effects
A low dosage of glutamine supplementation (7 g - 21 g glutamine for a person weighing 70 kg) shows no negative side effects. Even when taken in higher dosages (22 g - 42 g glutamine per day), it failed to show any unwanted side effects However, recent studies have shown that:

An increase of glutamine in the diet leads to an increase in production of the potential excitotoxin, glutamate
High levels of glutamate in the brain have been shown in post seizure brain analysis, and in paediatric brain injuries
Recent studies have revealed that glutamine plays a part in liver disease-associated brain injury
Accumulation of glutamine levels have been found in cases of Alzheimer’s disease
High levels of the enzyme glutaminase (that converts glutamine into glutamate) have been found in people who suffer from multiple sclerosis
Glutamine produces extreme hypoglycaemia in pregnant woman, which may lead to fatal hypoglycaemia in infants.

Glutamine should not be used by individuals who may have a history of the following:
Autism
Multiple sclerosis
ADHD
Pregnancy
Malignancy
Recent vaccinations
Stroke
Neuro-degenerative disease
Hypoglycaemia
Who may benefit?
Glutamine is most effective if used to repair gastrointestinal injury. Individuals with a weak immune system may benefit from a regular intake of glutamine.

Who should use it?
Those with lowered immune systems may benefit most from glutamine intake, but there is insufficient scientific evidence to support this claim.

Legal Status
Legal.

Verdict
As of yet, there is no concrete evidence that the the supplementation of glutamine enhances exercise or builds muscle. Though some studies may show a positive effect on the immune system, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support this.

(Warren Vonk, Health24.com, July 2005)
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« Reply #89 on: May 31, 2006, 08:05:40 PM »

Nutritional Supplements For Sport - Glutamine


What Is Glutamine?
Glutamine is a non-essential amino acid; that is to say it can be synthesized in the body. It is important as a constituent of proteins and as a means of nitrogen transport between tissues. Glutamine is the most abundant free amino acid in human muscle and plasma and is utilised at high rates by white blood cells (particularly lymphocytes) to provide energy and optimal conditions for nucleotide biosynthesis and hence, cell proliferation. Indeed, glutamine is considered important, if not essential to lymphocytes and other rapidly dividing cells including the gut mucosa and bone marrow stem cells. The intramuscular concentration of glutamine is also known to be related to the rate of net protein synthesis. Prolonged exercise is associated with a fall in the intramuscular concentration and the plasma concentration of glutamine and it has been hypothesised that such a decrease could temporarily impair immune function. Periods of very heavy training are associated with a chronic reduction in plasma glutamine levels and it has been suggested that this may be partly responsible for the immunosuppression apparent in many endurance athletes. The normal dietary intake of glutamine (in the protein we eat) is about 3 to 6 grams per day; this is assuming a daily protein intake of 0.8-1.6 grams of protein per kg body mass for a 70 kg individual.

Manufacturers' Claims
Loosely based on an uncritical evaluation of the scientific literature, glutamine supplements are claimed by various manufacturers and suppliers to have the following effects which may benefit the athlete:

More rapid water absorption from gut.

Improved intracellular fluid retention (i.e. a "volumising" effect).

Improved gut barrier function and reduced risk of endotoxaemia.

Nutritional support for immune system and prevention of infection.

Stimulation of muscle glycogen resynthesis.

Stimulation of muscle protein synthesis and muscle tissue growth.

Reduction in muscle soreness and improved muscle tissue repair.
The supplements currently available are in the form of L-glutamine tablets, or gelatin capsules (250, 500 and 1000 mg), or as a powder. Typical costs are about £20 for two hundred 1000 mg tablets or 400g of powder. Most manufacturers recommend the ingestion of 1000 mg per day in the form of a supplement to obtain some of the benefits claimed above.

Glutamine Supplements And Fluid Balance
Glutamine is not included in commercial sports drinks mainly because of its relative instability in solution. Water transport from the gut into the circulation is known to be promoted by the presence of glucose and sodium in drinks consumed. This is because water movement is determined by osmotic gradients and the co-transport of sodium and glucose into the gut epithelial cells is accompanied by the osmotic movement of water molecules in the same direction. Glutamine is transported into epithelial cells by both sodium-dependent and sodium independent mechanisms, and the addition of glutamine to oral rehydration solutions has been also shown to increase the rate of fluid absorption above that of ingested water alone. However, the potential benefits of adding glutamine to commercially available sports drinks has not been adequately tested, and any additional benefit in terms of increased rate of fluid absorption and retention is likely to be very small indeed.

Glutamine Supplements And Muscle Anabolic Processes
Muscle protein breakdown occurs in the fasted state. Recent research indicates that resistance exercise reduces the extent of this protein catabolism, but an anabolic (muscle growth) response requires an intake of essential amino acids (dietary protein) in the recovery period after exercise. This promotes amino acid uptake into muscle and increases the tissue protein synthesis rate without affecting the rate of protein breakdown. Provided that ingested protein contains the eight essential amino acids (those that cannot be synthesised in the body), taking supplements of individual nonessential amino acids at this time is extremely unlikely to be of any additional benefit. Protein synthesis in the tissues of the body requires the simultaneous presence of all 20 amino acids.

There is some evidence for an effect of glutamine supplements in promoting glycogen synthesis in the first few hours of recovery after exercise, but further work using optimal amounts of carbohydrate feeding after exercise needs to be done to substantiate this finding and give it practical relevance.

Thus, a post-exercise meal consisting of predominantly carbohydrate with some protein (e.g. from eggs, milk, fish or meat) would seem to be the best strategy to promote both glycogen and protein synthesis after exercise.

Glutamine Supplements And Muscle Soreness
There is no scientific evidence for a beneficial effect of oral glutamine supplementation on muscle repair after exercise-induced damage and no evidence of reduced muscle soreness when consuming glutamine compared with placebo.[/
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Glutamine Supplements And Immune Function
Several scientists have suggested that exogenous provision of glutamine supplements may be beneficial by preventing the impairment of immune function following endurance exercise. Prolonged exercise at 50-70% VO2 max has been shown to cause a fall in plasma glutamine concentration that may last for a number of hours during recovery. This fall in plasma glutamine coincides with the window of opportunity for infection following prolonged exercise when an athlete is more susceptible to opportunist infections. One study by Castell and colleagues (1996) showed that that an oral glutamine supplement (5 g in 330 ml water) consumed immediately after and 2 hours after a marathon reduced the incidence of upper respiratory tract infection in the 7 days following the race. However, it is unlikely that the dose given in that study was sufficient to prevent the post-exercise fall in the plasma glutamine concentration.

Furthermore, several recent studies that have investigated the effect of glutamine supplementation during exercise on various indices of immune function have failed to find any beneficial effect. A larger dose of glutamine (0.1 g/kg body mass) than that given by Castell et al. (1996) given at 0, 30, 60 and 90 minutes following a marathon race prevented the fall in the plasma glutamine concentration but did not prevent the fall in mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation and lymphocyte activated killer cell activity. Similarly, maintaining the plasma glutamine concentration by consuming glutamine in drinks taken both during and after 2 hours of cycling at 60% VO2max did not affect leukocyte subset trafficking or prevent the exercise-induced fall in neutrophil function. Furthermore, neither glutamine or milk protein (casein) supplements taken during and after exercise in amounts sufficient to prevent the post-exercise fall in the plasma glutamine concentration could prevent the exercise-induced decrease in lymphocyte proliferative response, natural killer cell activity and salivary IgA secretion rate. Unlike the feeding of carbohydrate during exercise, it seems that glutamine supplements do not affect the immune function perturbations that have been examined to date.


Recommendations
It is well accepted that an inadequate dietary intake of protein impairs host immunity with particularly detrimental effects on the T-cell system, resulting in increased incidence of opportunistic infections. While it is unlikely that athletes would ever reach a state of such extreme malnutrition unless dieting very severely, the impairment of host defence mechanisms is observed even in moderate protein deficiency. Dietary protein is also required to promote muscle protein synthesis after exercise. Hence, ensuring an adequate intake of protein is important for athletes. Consuming glutamine supplements is not. Certainly, the available evidence at present is not strong enough to warrant a recommendation for an athlete to use a glutamine supplement.

The daily protein requirement is approximately doubled in athletes compared with the sedentary population. An intake of less than 1.6 g protein/kg body mass/day is likely to be associated with a negative nitrogen balance in athletes who are training hard, particularly endurance athletes. Provided that athletes consume a well balanced diet that meets their requirement for energy, the increased requirement for protein will be met. In view of this, those individuals at most risk from protein deficiency would be athletes undertaking a programme of food restriction in order to lose weight, vegetarians and athletes consuming unbalanced diets. Interestingly, there is some evidence that an additional intake of 20-30 g protein per day can restore depressed plasma glutamine levels in overtrained athletes. Hence, athletes should be concerned with their intake of protein. Consuming glutamine supplements is unlikely to be of any significant benefit in terms of fluid balance restoration or preventing immunosuppression after exercise, although there are some suggestions of a possible role for glutamine in stimulating anabolic processes including muscle glycogen and protein synthesis
.

References And Further Reading
Bishop NC, Blannin AK, Walsh NP, Robson PJ and Gleeson, M (1999). Nutritional aspects of immunosuppression in athletes. Sports Medicine 28: 151-176.

Bowtell JL, Gelly K, Jackman ML, Patel A, Simeoni M, Rennie MJ (1999). Effect of oral glutamine on whole body carbohydrate storage during recovery from exhaustive exercise. Journal of Applied Physiology 86:1770-1777.

Castell LM, Poortmans JR and Newsholme EA (1996). Does glutamine have a role in reducing infections in athletes? European Journal of Applied Physiology 73: 488-490.

Nieman DC and Pedersen BK (editors) (2000). Nutrition and Exercise Immunology. Boca Raton FL: CRC Press.

Walsh NP, Blannin AK, Robson PJ and Gleeson M (1998). Glutamine, exercise and immune function: links and possible mechanisms. Sports Medicine 26: 177-191.

By Professor Mike Gleeson
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The True Adonis
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« Reply #90 on: May 31, 2006, 08:09:08 PM »

Face it.  You fools love to waste money for no reason and even when you are proved that something doesn`t work at all, you continue on like sheep buying  your peace of delusionment.


hahahha.
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dorkeroo
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« Reply #91 on: May 31, 2006, 08:49:37 PM »

Face it.  You fools love to waste money for no reason and even when you are proved that something doesn`t work at all, you continue on like sheep buying  your peace of delusionment.


hahahha.

Nice research, I have to say I am intrigued by it and I will look further into it. You know half the reason people on here say awful things about you is this attitude you give when you think you are right. If you don't care then that is fine, but, if you do, you might want to cool it.

Anyways, I like seeing this kind of thing on these boards. Well done  Cheesy
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gordiano
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« Reply #92 on: May 31, 2006, 09:41:01 PM »

Go here for free samples:

http://www.getbig.com/boards/index.php?topic=74978.msg1090660#msg1090660
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HAHA, RON.....
timfogarty
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« Reply #93 on: June 01, 2006, 12:20:21 AM »

Face it.  You fools love to waste money for no reason and even when you are proved that something doesn`t work at all, you continue on like sheep buying  your peace of delusionment.

ok, now do the same for those NO products
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Van_Bilderass
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« Reply #94 on: June 01, 2006, 03:01:34 AM »

Creatine is worthwhile - it's cheap as dirt. Does make you stronger, no debate there really.

Glutamine is pretty much worthless.
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chris_mason
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« Reply #95 on: June 01, 2006, 03:46:04 AM »

Let me throw in my 2 cents.  We do not sell supplemental glutamine because I believe it is unnecessary and not of any real benefit to supplement with when you are consuming sufficient protein.  As most weight trained individuals supplement with protein and therefore have a more than adequate intake I just don't see the point in selling something I don't think will be of benefit to my customers.

This is not a condemnation of those who do sell it because I know there is a market and some people really believe in it.  It is just a choice my partner and I have made.

Chris
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timfogarty
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« Reply #96 on: June 01, 2006, 04:06:57 AM »

I just don't see the point in selling something I don't think will be of benefit to my customers.

that's great.  you must have a very empty store.
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littleguns
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« Reply #97 on: June 01, 2006, 06:44:07 AM »

I'll stick with my Vanadyl Sulfate and HMB

Thank you very much!
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« Reply #98 on: June 01, 2006, 06:46:13 AM »

I'll stick with my Vanadyl Sulfate and HMB

Thank you very much!
yeah, i'm getting graet results with my boron and smilax.
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Jaejonna rows 125!!
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« Reply #99 on: June 01, 2006, 06:51:15 AM »

I'll stick with my Vanadyl Sulfate and HMB

Thank you very much!

Another one that people wrote off thanks to Bill Phillips erroneous marketing.  HMB works GREAT, in the right protein formula....
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